The American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers has tried to rank the ten most significant scientific discoveries of mankind. The institute is engaged in the study of materials, so it is not surprising that considerable attention is paid to the technologies of their production.
The most important scientific invention was unanimously recognized as the periodic table of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev, created in 1869. It is noted that without it, further research in the field of chemistry, as well as nuclear physics, would be difficult. Tradition says that the idea of the table came to the scientist in a dream. Mendeleev was generally a jack of all trades, it was he who determined the ideal degree for Russian vodka. Dmitry Ivanovich was fond of making suitcases and was an active participant in the Black Hundred movement.
The second place was taken by the technology of iron smelting, which came to us from Egypt. Scientists believe that the discovery, which largely determined the development of civilization, occurred in 1550 BC. However, historians note that the Hittites were the first to learn to smelt iron 300 years earlier, in Asia Minor.
In 1948, the Americans Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain invented the transistor. This discovery gave scientists the Nobel Prize, and modern civilization - miniaturization of electronics and its penetration into all spheres of life. Do not forget about the radio tubes, with which electronics actually began.
The fourth place is occupied by glass, which first appeared in 2200 BC. The Mediterranean is considered the birthplace of glass. If for scientists it is a material for laboratory glassware, for most it is an amazing material that has firmly entered our daily life.
This line belongs to the microscope, which was created by the Dutch inventor and naturalist Anthony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). He lacked only a magnifying glass, and therefore a device was assembled, with which the scientists first examined the flea. After Leeuwenhoek examined the drop of water and was horrified, he drank only wine and tea.
The sixth place is firmly occupied by cement, used since the 18th century, with the help of which a real revolution in construction took place. Cement production technologies are constantly improving, recently the German architect Lanz developed a method for making it from dog excrement.
In 300 BC. in India steel was invented. Steel products and steel military weapons have helped, where by force, and where by culture, to unite disparate empires into a single modern civilization.
The most ancient weapon material is copper, and this eighth place in the rating belongs to the discovery of the technology of its production. At first, copper was mined very simply - by finding nuggets. About 5 thousand years ago in Asia Minor they learned to smelt copper from minerals. It is interesting that one of the most ancient metallurgical regions was Donbass, archaeologists found copper mines and furnaces there for smelting this metal.
In 1912, Max von Laue discovered the diffraction of X-rays by crystals, which made a huge contribution to the development of nuclear physics. We should not forget about the contribution of the Curies and Roengten to this area.
The last place in the ranking was taken by a converter for smelting cast iron steel, created by the Englishman Bessemer in the 19th century. But the equally important open-hearth method of obtaining steel was ignored by the creators of the rating.