Mars

Mars is the closest planet in the solar system to Earth. They also calculated the trajectory of the new planet.

In our time, the study of Mars with telescopes has been replaced by interplanetary stations. And the first automatic station reached Mars back in 1965. Since then, the USSR, the USA, the European Space Agency and even India have been studying the Red Planet. Mars occupies a prominent place in our culture.

Science fiction writers wrote about aliens from this planet, we saw adventures related to it in movies. Knowledge about Mars is constantly growing, but the inhabitants are in captivity of past myths, including those invented by writers. And the popular pseudo-scientific hit movie The Martian added new misconceptions.

A face-shaped formation was found on the surface of Mars. In 1976, a sensation broke out. The Viking-1 spacecraft transmitted an image of the surface of Mars, on which a human face was clearly visible. This photo became famous and immediately went around all the print media. The image of a face on Mars began to appear in science fiction books and films. He was even nicknamed the local "sphinx". Fans of the unknown began to consider the existence of such an entity on the planet as direct evidence of the presence of intelligent life there. However, scientists were skeptical about this photo. According to experts, the picture became possible thanks to the play of light. True, very few people were convinced. And in 1998, NASA again photographed the same location using more modern technology. And here the "face" was already completely different. And in 2001, the myth finally fell - high-resolution photographs showed the most common hill on the surface of Mars.

Mars has a complex channel system. Long before the discovery of the "face", people found strange dotted lines on Mars. A myth has appeared that there is a whole system of channels on the planet, similar to water channels on Earth. These lines were first discovered in 1877 by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli. He called them channels. And a few years later, in 1890, the scientist wrote an article that spoke about intelligent life on Mars. Among the arguments, he named the channels he opened. This myth was developed by American businessman Percival Lowell. In his three books on the planet, he drew these channels in detail. This is how the idea of ​​creating such objects by some kind of intelligent life was popularized; it tried at one time in this way to throw water from the poles of the planet. But in 1965 the myth was debunked. The Mariner-4 spacecraft took large images that debunked the entire theory of artificial channels. It turned out that we were talking about an ordinary optical illusion that arose when observing Mars from Earth.

Oceans have been found on Mars. This idea is less bizarre than the channel story, but it's also popular. Back in 1784, astronomer William Herschel published an article based on observations of Mars. The scientist argued that the dark spots on the planet are its oceans, and the light ones are the continents. This idea persisted throughout the 19th century. Some even today believe that if water was not found on the site of the oceans, then it certainly was there billions of years ago. Just over time, the seas and oceans dried up, leaving the pits. But scientists have a different opinion on this matter. They believe that water on Mars could only exist as ice in the soil and not in liquid form on the surface.

Mars will at some point in time be as large in the sky as the Moon. This myth has appeared recently. Since 2003, the news has been sent out by e-mail that someday Mars can be seen with the naked eye. It was believed that none of the people living today will live to see this. Allegedly, the orbit of Mars is constantly decreasing, and it is gradually approaching the Earth. In fact, none of the living people will see the Red Planet so close, as, indeed, our descendants. The orbit of Mars is elongated, and it happens that it approaches the Earth closer than usual. The last time the distance between our planets was as close as possible was on August 27, 2003. On this day, Mars was 85 times brighter and 6 times larger than usual. It was about 56 million kilometers away. For the first time in 60 thousand years, such a convergence has happened. But for a planet to be the size of the moon, it would need to be 75 times larger. Even with the larger size of Mars, it would have to get very close to match the size of the Moon in the night sky. Moreover, the Moon is "only" 384 thousand kilometers.

There is intelligent life on Mars. Scientists do not exclude the existence of some forms of life on the planet. However, we are not talking about armed and dangerous humanoids, but about tiny microorganisms. And the myth itself appeared long ago. Back in 1784, Sir William Herschel wrote that Martians can evolve like us. And interest in the planet and its channels gave rise to numerous versions of the existence of an intelligent and ancient civilization. The most interesting "meeting" with her was Wells' novel The War of the Worlds. It was published in 1898, and its 1938 radio adaptation was scandalous and caused a real panic. Many listeners really believed in the invasion of our planet by the Martians. And 17 years later, the New York Times published an article about receiving regular signals from Mars that were not similar to natural ones. It was said that a lot was already known about Mars. Astronomers believed in the possibility of sustainable life on the planet. Already in our time, this information has been substantially supplemented; it is not worth looking for intelligent creatures on Mars.

Many objects clearly alien to the planet have been found on Mars. Hoax lovers similarly look at NASA photos from Mars, discovering something unusual there. But psychologists say that there is a certain phenomenon, pareidolia, when a person tries to look everywhere for symbols, faces, hidden subtext. The myth of the face has already been debunked earlier. In 2013, a stone was found that looked like an iguana, a little earlier - a stone that looked like a finger. Other formations on the surface looked like a rat, a sitting woman, a tibia, a skull, a helmet, a door handle, a flower ... But similarly, in the blurry photographs of ordinary earth stones, you can find a lot of interesting things.

Sandstorms are raging on Mars. It was such a storm, according to the author of The Martian, that caused the disaster. A strong wind nearly collapsed temporary structures and threatened to overturn the spacecraft. In fact, the atmosphere of Mars is very thin, the hurricane will not be as strong as on Earth. The writer Andy Weir simply did not know about this, having given birth to another myth about the planet with his work. NASA experts say that the wind on Mars can reach 100 kilometers per hour, still inferior to terrestrial counterparts. Accelerated grains of sand can damage your equipment. But such a wind will not lift stones. But lightning on the Red Planet does happen.

A manned flight to Mars is already real. Manned flight to this planet is a daunting task. It is not yet clear how to protect astronauts from solar radiation particles during flight. And on the planet itself, a rarefied atmosphere and a weak magnetic field contribute to powerful ionizing radiation. Solar flares can destroy a person in just a matter of weeks. We'll have to defend the base or build it underground. The main functionality of the cargo will be given to the banal life support of the astronaut. So far, there are only theoretical talks about the flight, and plans are not being built before 2030. Humanity is not ready to send brave researchers to certain death.

Colonization of Mars is necessary. From a practical point of view, there is no point in colonizing this planet. There is nothing of value on Mars that would justify sending people there, protecting life, organizing their life, extracting something, transporting it back. And on Earth there are still huge unpopulated territories. Exploration of Mars is much more economical to conduct with the help of robots.

There are many high red mountains and rocks on Mars. For billions of years, wind erosion has practically smoothed out the existing years, leveling the relief. High hills on Mars are the exception rather than the rule.

Potatoes can be grown in Martian soil. The hero of the epic "The Martian" was able to escape by growing potatoes in the local soil. Both the book and the film claim that the soil on the planet is homogeneous. As soon as the hero needed land for potatoes, he dug it up next to the station and set to work. In fact, different layers on Mars were formed in different conditions and in different climatic periods. Accordingly, the content of chemical elements will be heterogeneous. The upper layer appeared in the last geological period. At this time, volcanoes saturated the soil with sulfur and chlorine compounds with their gases. Such fumes will certainly kill any terrestrial plant as soon as they react with water. And the person himself is in mortal danger. Fertile rocks on Mars do exist. The Curiosity rover even found a layer of clay containing both organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide required for agriculture. True, nitrogen in such soil is still a hundred times more than in the earth's norms. Before planting anything in Martian soil, even the fittest, it would take a lot of experimentation to make the best mixtures. Biologists believe that turning soil into soil requires not only organic matter, but also bacterial cultures. The necessary set will give the manure of herbivores, but human waste is poorly suited for this.

With the help of nuclear bombing, Mars can be revived. This idea was voiced again by the American industrialist Elon Musk in an evening TV show. The idea of ​​bombing the Martian poles to give Mars an Earth-like climate is not new. However, the concept is already outdated. Back in the 19th century, scientists knew about the existence of ice caps at the planet's poles. The formations seemed watery. It was believed that as soon as they were melted, the water would flow through the very channels. Over time, it was possible to clarify the composition of the atmosphere and the temperature on the planet. The ice turned out to be "dry", that is, it is frozen carbon dioxide. Spacecraft have confirmed the guess. At this time, the idea came up to melt the ice with the help of nuclear explosions. The atmosphere should become denser, carbon dioxide will increase temperature and pressure, the ground will begin to thaw, rivers will flow and it will rain. After heating the planet, it could be populated with unicellular algae and wait for the formation of the desired atmosphere. But in 2005, new data came in. Mars' permanent ice deposits are water, and only a thin crust is dry ice. It is useless to bomb the water. Even if it is possible to evaporate the polar ice, the water will turn into snow. The clouds will begin to reflect the light, and the atmosphere will freeze even more during snowfalls. But another question arises - can humanity with the available resources melt those modest 12.5 thousand cubic kilometers of dry ice? Even if you put the most powerful of the atomic bombs created in the very thickness to use all the energy, then the explosion will evaporate only 0.23 cubic kilometers. To evaporate all reserves of dry ice on Mars and thereby increase the atmospheric density by 80% instead of the required 10-50 times, 55 thousand of these bombs will be required! And each of them weighs 26 tons. So this project remains just a fantasy, practically unrealizable. But it makes sense to bomb Mars, if only for the sake of a natural experiment. This will allow you to learn a lot more about the bowels of the planet, changes in the atmosphere.

Mars has orange skies and orange sunsets. The color of a planet's atmosphere depends on its composition. In the case of Mars, dust plays an important role. It scatters light, as a result, the sky during the day on the planet is as bright as on Earth. The stars are not visible. During dusk and dawn, part of the sky next to the Sun will be blue and the rest of the sky will be pink. But during the day, the sky on Mars will be just yellow-orange. This color is given to it by the very dust rich in iron oxides. And it gets into the atmosphere, thanks to regular storms, because of which the sand particles do not have time to settle to the surface.


Watch the video: New: Mars In 4K (June 2021).