Tug-of-war is one of the sports in which two teams (8 people of a certain weight category) measure their strength on a site with a length of at least 36 meters, pulling a rope (length - 33.5 m, circumference - 10-12.5 cm) with several marks: central and two lateral, located 4 meters from it. Before the start of the competition, the center mark is placed over the line drawn on the ground, and after the judge's signal, each of the teams begins to pull the rope in its direction.
This sport originated in ancient times, and at first it was a part of the religious ceremonies of various cults. Information about the conduct of actions of this kind was found in many countries of the world: in India, Korea, Burma, New Guinea, countries in Africa and America, in Hawaii and in New Zealand.
Over time, tug of war lost its mystical meaning and became one of the team sports. On the walls of one of the tombs found in the Sahara, an image of this type of competition was found. In Europe, there are also many references to competitions of this kind, the most ancient of which dates back to 1000 AD. As the legends say, it was then that the "Games of Power" were held - sports competitions at which athletes from Germany and Scandinavia could demonstrate their prowess in many disciplines, including tug of war. In the 15th century, this type of competition was very popular in Great Britain and France, where it was called "tug-of-war" or "rope shooting" (fr. Tir à la corde), and in the 19th century - in Russia (especially among sailors).
From 1900 to 1920, tug of war was included in the list of Olympic sports, initially as an athletic discipline, and from 1912 as a separate sport. Later, due to a decrease in the number of participants, the tug of war was excluded from the Olympic register, which, however, did not lead to the loss of the position of this sport.
At first, tug of war was part of the athletics association, but later there was a need to create independent organizations, since the athletic associations paid too little attention to the development of this sport. In 1933, an independent tug-of-war association appeared in Sweden, in 1958 an organization of this kind was created in England, in 1959 - in the Netherlands, and a year later, on the initiative of George Heaton (chairman of the Association of Great Britain), the International Tug-of-War Federation ( Tug of War International Federation, TWIF).
The first international competitions in this sport ("Baltic Games") took place in 1964 in Malm (Sweden), and a year later the first European Championship was organized in London, which was held regularly until 1975, when, after joining TWIF, non-European countries the first world tug of war championship was held. Since 1981, this sport has been included in the program of the World Games.
Our ancestors saw the tug of war as a symbol of the struggle of mystical forces. It really is. For example, in Burma, before the rainy season, a tug of war was held, with one team symbolizing drought, the other a saving downpour. Competitions of this kind could also be a symbolic display of the struggle between good and evil (held during funeral ceremonies), bad weather and good weather, fertility and sterility of the earth, etc. Nowadays, this sport has practically lost its mystical meaning, however, echoes of traditional rituals still exist in some places. For example, the Eskimos at spring festivals during tug-of-war are divided into groups according to the time of birth: people born in autumn and winter compete with those who saw the light in spring or summer.
In ancient times, there were many types of tug-of-war. This is true, there was a huge variety of both the drag styles and the equipment used. For example, the inhabitants of Afghanistan used a board during the competition, and in Korea they held their hands on the belt of the person in front (as a result of this, the people with the strongest grip became the team captains - after all, they served as a link with the opposing team). And the Eskimos of Canada competed in seated tug-of-war, and one on one. Nowadays, in some countries, competitions of this kind are also held according to the rules that differ slightly from the generally accepted ones. For example, in Russia, during the Maslenitsa celebration, the competing teams are not facing, but with their backs to each other. In the province of Gyeongsangnam-do (South Korea), at traditional festivals for competitions, a rope is used, the diameter of which is 1.4 m, weight - 54.5 kg, length - 251 m.The weight of the equipment used during the All-Russian Summer Rural Sports Games is 720 kg. And in the city of Naha (Okinawa Prefecture, Japan) for 400 years in a row, many people have been happy to take part in the "big holidays" of the city, and one of them is accompanied by a tug-of-war, consisting of two parts, called "male" and "female" related to each other. In 2004, thousands of residents and tourists participated in the tug of this 200-meter rope weighing 40 tons, divided into "east" and "west" sides. In total, this event, entered in the Guinness Book of Records, gathered about 400 thousand participants and spectators. A lighter rope (3 tons), but having a length of a kilometer, was created in 2008 for a symbolic competition dedicated to the Beijing Olympics. 2008 people (students, TV announcers and pop stars) took part in the competition, which took place on January 9 in Changsha (Huan province, China).
The rules for tug of war were developed at the beginning of the last century. No, the ordering of this kind of competition began much earlier. For example, back in the 15th century, teams were made up of the same number of people of equal weight.
The victory in the competition will go to the team that will drag the center mark to its side by at least one meter. This is not entirely true - in order to win the competition, the stronger team needs to pull the rope until the line drawn on the ground is crossed by the side mark on the opponent's side (i.e. the rope will have to be pulled at least 4 meters ). Also, victory is awarded to a team if any of the opponents falls or sits down (this state of affairs is called a "foul").
In order to successfully compete in tug-of-war competitions, tenacious and strong hands should be developed. Strong upper limbs are important, but not the only factor. People who want to achieve victory in this sport must be harmoniously developed - the strength and endurance of the muscles of the feet, hips, back and especially the forearms are important. You also need good coordination of movements and the ability to repeatedly transfer maximum power load (after all, the duration of one round (pool) is 10 minutes, the match consists of 3 pools, and during the competition, which usually lasts only one day, such matches can be from 16 to 20 ). The athlete's resistance to stress is no less important. Therefore, training in this sport is very diverse, and is a combination of strength exercises, cross training, endurance exercises and the development of reaction speed with tactical and psychological training.
Only athletes of a certain height and build can participate in the tug of war. No, growth in this sport is not decisive. And the weight of an athlete in one or another team can be almost any. The fact is that when determining the weight category, the weight of all team members is taken into account, and not each individual player. Therefore, people of different constitutions can act as part of one team. But if the team is formed, and at some point you have to look for a replacement for one of the players, close attention will really be paid to the weight of the newcomer.
The best system for tug-of-war competition is knockout. It is she who is used during the international championships. In competitions in this sport, two systems are used: round-robin and elimination. The advantage of the elimination system is that it allows a large number of teams to take part in competitions. However, a serious drawback of this system is the elimination of inexperienced teams at the very beginning of the competition, as a result of which the juniors gain almost no experience and may lose interest in this sport. The circular system presupposes the struggle of each team with all other participants, but in the case of building competitions according to this system, no more than 10 teams can participate in them. However, it is the circular system that is gaining more and more popularity in competitions of various kinds, since it allows a more objective assessment of the capabilities of athletes, and also provides an opportunity for inexperienced athletes to gain experience. Both the National and World Tug of War Championships are held in a round robin system, with a knockout system applied only in the national finals.
Athletes participating in the tug-of-war competition do not wear any protective gear. This is not entirely true. In addition to the usual sports uniform (sports shirt, shorts and knee-highs), athletes can wear protective belts ("sportsman-anchor" - special protective equipment, the thickness of which does not exceed 5 cm), provided that these devices are hidden under the competitors' clothes. Hooks, gloves or any other device to reduce hand slipping is prohibited.
The shoes worn by athletes must not have any metal parts. Yes, when it comes to indoor competitions. In this case, the soles of athletes' shoes must be either rubber or from another material that provides adhesion to the floor surface, but does not lead to its destruction. If the competition is held outdoors, shoes with metal heels can be used, provided that the thickness of the metal does not exceed 6.5 mm and it does not protrude beyond the lower part of the heel and the sole as a whole. But equipping shoes with a metal toe or spikes fixed on the sole is prohibited.
In order to get a tighter grip on the rope, athletes use various substances that prevent the palms from sliding. During tug-of-war competitions, athletes may only apply rosin (a vitreous substance derived from the resin of coniferous trees) to their palms. The use of any other substances that facilitate capture is prohibited.
The rope marking should be as static as possible. Misconception. The marks (most often - colored tape) are fixed so that in case of pulling or shortening of the rope, they can be easily moved to the desired place.
Tug of war is a team sport. Most often, this is true, the standard number of athletes in a team is 8 people. However, sometimes competitions are held between teams of 4 people, and among people involved in bodybuilding and arm wrestling, one-on-one competitions are increasingly popular.
Tug-of-war is an easy-to-learn sport. Yes, and it is not always possible to work at full strength - no one will notice. Completely erroneous opinion. Experienced athletes claim that only after several months of regular training a person begins to understand how to pull the rope correctly, which muscles should be used as much as possible, how to calculate their efforts so as not to "fizzle out" after the first round of competition. And it is simply impossible to quietly loosen the grip during the competition - it cannot be hidden from the team members.
If a competitor falls, his team loses. Yes, however, if the athlete who falls or touches the ground with his knee immediately jumps to his feet, the violation (foul) will not be counted.
In Russia, tug-of-war has long been a very popular sport; it was included in the official register at the beginning of the last century. In Russia, competitions of this kind were often accompanied by various holidays and festivities, and were especially popular among sailors. In the USSR, tug-of-war competitions were included in the program of sports events (regional and all-Union). However, athletes from the Soviet Union did not compete in this discipline at the Olympic Games held at the beginning of the last century, nor did they participate in international tug-of-war competitions for a long time. Yes, and the official recognition in the USSR, and after - in Russia, the mentioned sport had to wait for a long time. The first regional federation of tug of war was created in Leningrad only in 1992, at the same time the Russian Cup was held, and a year later the first Russian championship in this sport was held in the city on the Neva. The All-Russian Federation of Tug-of-War appeared in 2004, in May 2005 it was admitted to the TWIF, since 2006, athletes began to take part in the World Championships in this sport. But only on March 28, 2006, tug of war was officially recognized in Russia as one of the sports.