Runes (from the Gothic runa - "secret", the ancient Germanic runen - "mysterious whisper") - one of the types of writing. Runic writing was widespread from the 1st to the 12th centuries. from the ancient Germans who lived in Norway, Sweden, Denmark. In Greenland and Iceland, it existed until the X-XIII centuries, and in some provinces (for example, Dalarna (Sweden)) it was found in the XIX century. Most often, the inscriptions were carved on stones and metal products, or carved on wood. With the advent of Christianity (in the VIII-XII centuries), instead of runic writing, the Latin script began to be used everywhere.
According to legend, the runes were revealed to the sorcerer, sage, priest, king, prince and supreme god of ancient Germanic and Scandinavian mythology Odin (Wotan, also called Ygg - "frightening", Alfyodr - "all-father", Har - "high", Veratur - "commanding people ", etc.). In order to comprehend the power of the runes, he had to sacrifice himself (for 9 days, Odin hung on the trunk of the Yggdrasil (mythological World tree, a huge ash), nailed to it by his own spear (Gungnir)).
Runic writing is not an alphabet. Since the alphabet refers to a set of graphemes (letters, syllabic characters, etc.) of a particular writing system, which are arranged in the prescribed order, runic writing can be considered an alphabet. However, a distinctive feature of this sign system is the order of the letters. If in many other writing systems the letters "a" and "b" go first (in fact, the term "alphabet" itself comes from the name of the first letters of the Greek alphabet - "alpha" and "beta"), then in the runic alphabetical order the location is different, called "futark" (according to the first 6 letters) or "futork". In addition, the runic alphabet is divided into 3 ettirs (clans), each of which includes 8 runes, and each of the runes has its own name.
Runes are derived from the Greek alphabet. Nowadays, there are many hypotheses regarding the origin of the runes. There are several main versions:
- Greek-Latin. Scientists adhering to this version believe that the ancestor of the runic writing was either the Greek alphabet (Greek cursive), or the Latin script, or both of these alphabets. Also, in their opinion, the Goths were the inventors of the runes. Some experts put forward a theory of the origin of the runes from the Gothic writing, but it was refuted, since the Gothic writing arose in the IV century, and the most ancient rune writing dates back to the I-II centuries;
- North Etruscan (one of the most popular), according to which the runes originated from the North Etruscan alphabet (possibly with an admixture of the Latin alphabet and the Ogamic alphabet - the writing of the ancient Picts and Celts);
- Semitic version - based on the fact that signs similar to runes are found in some Semitic languages.
This theory was especially popular in Germany in the 30-40s of the last century. However, the assertion of German researchers that the runes originated from the praunes, which gave rise to all the alphabetic systems of the world, has not been convincingly proven.
Runic inscriptions are read from left to right. More often than not, this is true. But there are inscriptions and whole texts where the direction alternates (for example, 1 line is read from left to right, 2 - from right to left, 3 - again from left to right, etc., moreover, when the direction changed, the runes were written in a mirror image). This way of writing is called bustrophedon (from 2 Greek words - "bull" and "turn"), since the direction of the signs (and their subsequent reading) resembles the movement of a bull harnessed to a plow on a plowed field.
On the runestones, you can see not only runes, but also various symbols. Yes, in some cases, the inscriptions were not only made up of runes (colons, dots and crosses were used to separate words), but also supplemented with symbols in the form of swastikas (direct and reverse), spirals, pentagrams, triangular shapes (triquetra), triskelions (from gr . "three-legged" - the image of 3 running legs connected in the center). There are also ornaments consisting of circles, triangles, dots, zigzags, I-shaped, T-shaped, S-shaped symbols, etc.
The oldest runic inscriptions are in Sweden. Misconception. Sweden is indeed the leader in the number of runic inscriptions (out of 5000 currently discovered, 3000 are in this country). But the oldest of them, adorned with a bone crest, was found in Denmark, in one of the swamps on the island of Funen.
Runic inscriptions are found in different countries of the world. It really is. Inscriptions of this kind are found not only in the countries of Northern and Western Europe (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Greenland, Iceland, France, Austria, Latvia, the Netherlands), but also in Russia, Germany, Ukraine, Greece, Turkey, etc. Also, a runestone (an inscription on which tells about the events that occurred in 1362 with the Normans and Göth travelers) was found in 1898 in Kensington (Minnesota, USA), but its authenticity has not yet been proven.
The most common are magic runograms. The content of the runic inscriptions is very diverse. There are also magical ones among them, or containing an appeal to beings of a higher order (gods). However, most often the runes were used for the application of memorial inscriptions of a praising, glorifying or memorial nature, as well as everyday inscriptions. There were also runic calendars.
Since ancient times, runes have been used for fortune telling and magical rituals. Julius Caesar (mid-1st century BC) mentioned the custom of the ancient Germans to guess on wooden dies on which special signs were applied. The ancient Greek historian Tacitus describes in detail the method of fortune-telling in one of his works: wooden dice with the applied signs were poured onto the fabric, and after offering up a prayer to the gods, the priest (if the fortune-telling is public) or the father of the family took out 3 dice. Then the symbols on the dies taken out during fortune-telling were interpreted.
In the "Elder Edda" it is said that the runes have protective properties (protect from danger, deception, etc.), and are also capable of curing certain diseases. In the manuscript of the doctor and scientist from Denmark Ole Worm (1328), there is a mention of the magical effect of the runes. And in Iceland in the early Middle Ages, magic signs (galdrastavs) in the form of an interweaving of several (sometimes stylized) runes were widespread, used both to protect and to attract certain benefits (money, love, etc.) into human life.
For writing and fortune telling, 25 runes were used. This is not entirely true. The number of runes used as signs of writing was constantly changing. In the earliest of them, Proto-Scandinavian (the so-called "senior futarka" or "senior runes", most often used for divination), there were 24 signs. In the Anglo-Saxon, which appeared at the beginning of the 7th century, there were some changes - 9 runes were added, as a result of which the total number of symbols was 33. In the northern runes (Scandinavian or "junior runes", used in the 9th century), the number of signs, on the contrary, decreased - it was abolished 9 runes out of 24, but one new one has been added. As a result, the number of Scandinavian runes is 16 (moreover, some symbols denoted several sounds at once). There were only 15 symbols in the Norse (Manx) runes. In addition, there were Icelandic (distinguished by a new form of signs), Greenlandic, Dal (far Carlian), which approached the Latin alphabet, etc. Today, a set of 24 or 25 signs is used for fortune telling, and 25 (empty - in the form of a tablet without a picture) the rune or "Odin rune" was not previously used, but was introduced by Ralph Bloom only at the end of the last century.
The pagan Slavs used their own runic signs in magical rites. This assumption is based on a quote from the treatise "On the Writings" by Chernorizets the Brave, who asserted that the pagan Slavs used certain signs ("lines and cuts") during divination. However, most of the runic inscriptions on the territory of Ukraine, Russia and Latvia are made in Germanic runes. Only two of them (found in Novgorod and Staraya Ladoga) are presumably examples of Old Slavic runes. The rest of the finds ("Venedian runes" found on figurines from the temple of the ancient Slavic fortress city of Retra, as well as "Veles's book") were recognized as fakes.
Futhark is the wrong location of the runes, uthark is more correct. The mentioned theory was put forward by a professor at Lund University (Sweden) Sigurd Agrell in 1932. He argued that by rearranging the rune f from the first place to the last, one can comprehend the sacred meaning of the runes. This theory has not received scientific substantiation, but has gained considerable popularity in esoteric circles.
Nowadays, runic fortune telling is carried out in the same way as hundreds of years ago, using the signs of the most ancient alphabet. No, for modern runic fortune-telling they use the so-called "Armanic futark", introduced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Guido von Liszt, runologist and occultist from Germany. The alphabet was based not on the most ancient, pre-Scandinavian, but the so-called Scandinavian runes, to which some signs were added, and the names of the existing symbols in some cases were slightly changed.
The method of divination has also undergone a change (it has learned a lot from the divination schemes of the tarot). If in ancient times the fortuneteller limited himself to interpreting 3 runes randomly selected from a set, nowadays several types of layouts are used:
- for one rune (provided that the question involves only the answer "yes" or "no");
- 3 runes (symbolizing the past, present and future);
- for 4, 5, 7 runes;
- on 9 runes (or "world tree" or "9 worlds" - the runes are located in a certain way, each of the positions is identified with one of the worlds (for example, the uppermost position is the world of the gods Astgard, below it - Alfheim or the kingdom of Reason, etc.) etc.));
- for 12 or 24 runes.
Runes should be depicted exclusively in red, best of all with blood. There is no consensus on this matter. Some researchers argue that the runes really should be red, since it symbolizes blood. Such statements are based on the fact that in many ancient rituals and magical rites (including the use of runes), blood was used, taken from shallow cuts on the chest or palm. It was believed that this ritual imbued the signs with tremendous "rune power".
Other runologists believe that exclusively blue paint should be used to draw the runes. After all, firstly, in ancient times, the personification of vital and spiritual strength was water (indicated in blue), and not blood. Secondly, the blue color symbolizes the sky, the universe, the source of life for all that exists, as well as divine wisdom that hides and appears to the chosen ones of their own free will. And, finally, it was the blue color that was the color of Odin, who revealed the wisdom of the runes to people. This supreme god of the ancient Germans was most often depicted in a wide-brimmed hat and a dark blue cloak (in the Icelandic sagas it is said that gloomy people with a cold heart, ready to commit murder, wear such a robe, since dark blue is the color of death). In modern runic magic, not only blue is used to apply runes, but also, in some cases, ice (if it is required to "cool" the relationship between people).
In addition, there is an opinion that the color of the runic inscription is not at all significant. However, if a person has certain associations with a certain shade (for example, wealth correlates with yellow (the color of gold) or green (the color of dollars)), then it is this color that should be used to draw a runic formula that must perform a certain action (for example, to attract money into the life of an individual).
For divination, it is best to use runes carved on wooden planks. However, in some cases, fortune-tellers use runes made from various materials during sessions: clay, stone, bone, dried salt dough.
Runic formulas must be accompanied by texts that enhance their effect. Moreover, it is desirable that the texts are pronounced in the Old Scandinavian language. Yes, many runic formulas are indeed accompanied by rhymed appeals to the Higher Spheres (scaldic appeals or visas). From the point of view of philologists, in order to correctly recreate this or that scaldic form, only the Old Norse language should be used. However, experts believe that a slight deviation from the style that takes place when translating visas into a particular language is compensated by the semantic versatility and emotional depth that manifests itself in this case (which is not so easy to see in the original). Therefore, modern masters of rune magic (eryli) either use the visas translated into their native language, or compose appeals on their own (since in this matter the degree of understanding of the compiled text by the author himself and the heart fullness of the visa are most significant).
The wider the spectrum of action of the visa, the more powerful it is. After all, the main goal of the visa is the correct formulation of the intention of aryl. All visas can be divided into several types: invocative (containing an appeal to runes), incantatory (aimed at the object of influence), hypnotic (a certain feature of something is mentioned (for example, the coldness of ice) that will be broadcast to the object of influence). You should not combine all the above types of influences in one hang.
When working with runes, the phases of the moon should be taken into account. No, the phases of the moon do not have a particular effect on the runes (except that some magical rituals, for example, "squabbles" are best done on the waning moon). However, if a person is sure that a certain position of the night star (or any planet, star) in the sky can help in carrying out the ritual, he will have to take into account the phases of the moon.
The best way to apply runes to the body is by tattooing. Not always. In some cases, the runes applied are programmed for a specific action (for example, they should help a person find a job), after which they need to be removed from the body, which is very problematic in the case of a tattooed image. Therefore, in the form of tattoos, only signs are depicted that are designed for constant exposure (for example, protective). The rest are applied either with the help of paint to which blood is added (they work until the drawing is erased), or by "scratching" (the runes will work until the scratches heal). Sometimes the so-called astral placement of runes is practiced, when symbols (from 1 to 7, golden) are visualized and "implanted" directly into the energy shell of the individual. However, in any case, you should be extremely careful and soberly assess your own capabilities, since some runic symbols (for example, Uruz - the rune of power, Teyvaz - the rune of war, Perto - the rune of improvement in magic) invoke a powerful flow of energy that can have a destabilizing effect on the unprepared human.
It is best to apply runic formulas on the right hand. Much depends on the meaning of the formula. If the impact is directed exclusively at the person himself and has the goal of correcting the problems he already has (the origins of which lie in the events of the past), the runes should be applied to the left, "receiving" hand.If, however, a long-term influence is planned that concerns not only the individual himself, but also those around him, it is preferable to depict the runic formula on the right, "broadcasting" hand.
Apply runes on the inside of the object and your body should be upside down. Completely wrong opinion! Both on the outside and on the inside of the subject, the runes are written in the same way. When applying the runic formula to your own body, it should be placed as if the runes were written by another person located opposite you.
If a rune or a rune formula is applied to a bracelet or pendant, you must be careful to ensure that the decoration is positioned correctly (not "turning" the rune, as this changes its meaning). When applying a rune to an amulet, the intention of eryl is most significant. In what position the runes will be while wearing (for example, depending on the position of the hand, the position of the bracelet worn on it also changes - and the runes are either in the "straight" or in the "inverted" position) does not matter - they will affect in accordance with the intention of the person who made the inscription.
When applying the runic formula to a photograph, you should choose the one on which the object of influence is depicted alone. For example, to influence the relationship between people (the so-called "squabble"), a photo in which they are depicted together (but not in the company of a large number of other persons) is suitable. But for a specific targeted impact, an individual photograph is really best suited. For this kind of influence, you can also use an ordinary sheet of paper with a person's surname or first name written on it, a schematic drawing depicting an individual, or any object that is associated with the object of influence (provided that the eryl is sufficiently experienced and has the ability to concentrate) ...
The runes were used in SS symbolism. After all, the abbreviation SS was written in the form of two lightning-like characters on a dark background - 2 Soulu runes ("sun of victories"). The same symbol can be seen on the banners of the Jungfolk (one of the units of the Hitler Youth). The stages of promotion and some personal characteristics of SS members, according to Himmler's decree, were indicated by 14 runes of the "senior futark". There were runes on the emblems of various units of the German army: the Odal rune ("legacy") on the emblem of the 7th Volunteer Mountain Division "Prince Eugen"; Teyvaz ("justice") on the sign of the 32nd Volunteer Grenadier Division "January 30", etc. In addition, the runes were placed on daggers, lamps, rings (for example, on the "Death's Head" award ring, in addition to the skull and the swastika, there are 2 Soulou runes and the Hagalaz rune ("destruction and transformation", in this case, representing faith and partnership)) and others items used by SS officers.