In 1980, the entire Soviet Union mourned the death of a popular favorite, Vladimir Vysotsky. Then it seemed inconceivable that in a couple of decades the general interest in the personality of this unique person would sharply decline. It's just that society has received other values. Vysotsky's genius will not allow his work to plunge into oblivion, but after the descent of the frenzied excitement, it becomes possible to calmly and qualitatively evaluate his activities and life.
Over the years, everyone has spoken about the actor and musician: wives and mistresses, friends and colleagues. In the stream of love and reverence for Vysotsky, it is difficult to single out really real studies of his work.
Journalists often copy stories and legends from each other, embellishing them. However, we deserve to know the truth about the great Russian artist and bard, and therefore it is necessary to debunk some misconceptions about him.
During Vysotsky's lifetime, only one of his poems was published. This myth is often replicated in articles about the work of the bard. It is about the poem "The Waiting Lasted", which appeared in the collection "Poetry Day - 1975". And even then the lines were filed with bills. If we separate poems from songs, then this publication can really be considered the only one. It's just that many people perceive songs as poorer quality poetry. Yes, and of all the publications that published the works of Vysotsky during his lifetime, only "Poetry Day" is specialized poetry. The first publication of Vysotsky's poem "We are told without any flattery" took place in the editing recording of the film "On Tomorrow Street" in 1965. And this is said about the complete poem, and the very first quotes from the songs appeared in the press back in 1964.
Vysotsky gained wide access to print several years later. In 1967, several dozen works published lyrics from the films "Vertical" and "I Come from Childhood". In total, from 1965 to 1980, about 250 publications of the works of the talented poet were made in the Soviet press. True, one should not exaggerate the significance of this number. Most of the publications are in district or regional newspapers, and even in large circulation. On a national scale, it was a drop in the ocean. Among other sources, one can single out songbooks released in large, but still insufficient circulations. Only a few editions, the same collection "Poetry Day", could convey Vysotsky's work to the mass public.
The poet's last poem was his dedication to Marina Vladi. The poem "Ice from below, and from above - I am toiling between ..." was found in Vysotsky's home archive on the day of his death and was typed on a typewriter by his close friends. Below the text is the date July 20, 1980. It is likely that there was a melody to the verses. Bella Akhmadulina speaks about this, to whom Vysotsky sang a new song on July 22. The last two lines sound unusually tragic: “I have something to sing when I appear before the Almighty. I will have something to answer in front of him. " The poet seems to say goodbye not only to his beloved, but also to friends, life in general. Marina Vlady in a documentary film in 1987 told how this poem appeared. Vysotsky began writing it on June 11, on the last day of their meeting, on a transport form just before leaving for his homeland. The woman was shocked, asked to leave the poetry. However, Vysotsky promised to send them to her upon arrival.
But was this poem really the last one? Here again the notorious division of Vysotsky's legacy into songs and poems intervenes. Experts consider the text of the song "My sadness, my melancholy" to be the last poetic work of the bard. It remained as a phonogram of the author's performance at the Pasteur Institute on July 14, 1980. The recording was made from the auditorium and was poor, but no other phonograms, like the manuscripts, were found. So the date of creation of the work is determined conditionally, "until July 14, 1980".
During the life of Vysotsky, no one except him performed his songs. This myth continues to be replicated by rabid fans of Vysotsky's work, who do not perceive concerts in his memory. After all, these fans of the author's song cannot see how the songs of the bard sound in modern processing and from the lips of other performers. In fact, this myth has no real basis. In the 1960s and 70s, Vysotsky's songs were sounded in films, recorded on discs and performed from the stage by many famous singers and actors. For example, in 1966, other people performed the songs of the bard in three films at once. In "I Come From Childhood", "Mass Graves" was sung by Mark Bernes, in "The Last Swindler" - Nikolai Gubenko, and in "Sasha-Sasha" - Lev Prygunov. The music for the last two tapes was written by Mikhail Tariverdiev. Vladimir Semenovich has done a great job creating music for films. Efim Kopelyan performed the song in "Intervention" in 1968, in "Master of the Taiga" of the same year the duet of Vysotsky and Zolotukhin sounded. In 1969, "Dangerous Tours" was released, where Rada and Nikolai Volshaninov sang. Vysotsky's songs were also played in the theater, in particular, in the "Last Parade" they were performed by Papanov, Derzhavin, Tkachuk and Vasilyeva. In 1976, the disc performance "Alice in Wonderland" was released, songs for which, together with Vysotsky, were recorded by Klara Rumyanova, Vsevolod Abdulov and other actors. And "Song of a Friend" appeared on the gramophone record back in 1968, it was performed by pop singer Vladimir Makarov. It should be understood that with seeming well-being, each such fact can be considered as a small victory. Singer Eduard Khil even said that the artistic council did not want to approve three songs of the composer Veniamin Basner on the verses of Vysotsky. Then the singer had to lie that this was the work of a certain Leningrad poet's namesake, by the name of Vasily.
Vysotsky's life and performances were practically not filmed. This myth is only partially true. From time to time, television shows rare documentaries, but they were always inaccessible to the ordinary viewer. But in the end, all the material filmed in different countries over the years was collected, its volume turned out to be impressive. The chronicles were enough to create a full-length six-part film, where only Vysotsky himself would be on the screen. At the same time, the scenes of farewell and funeral are taken into a separate topic. The subject of Vysotsky's filming gave rise to several more myths.
The first shooting of Vysotsky took place in 1967 in Leningrad at a concert in the food industry culture center. It is better to use the term "first live recording" for this recording. But the very first documentary footage of Vysotsky dates back to July 1963. The actor was shot by Valery Abramov in the Moscow region, at the Otdykh station. There Vladimir Semenovich was with his second wife, Lyudmila Abramova.
The television series "The meeting place cannot be changed" did not include a lot of material with the participation of Vysotsky. This myth was created by one of the script authors, Arkady Vayner. He said that in total seven episodes were filmed, only five of them appeared on the screen. It was even believed that these materials could become part of the continuation of the tape. But the film archives experts have passed a disappointing verdict. They have at their disposal only a five-minute video without sound with duplicates of the episode “Zheglov and Sharapov in the MUR office”.
Vysotsky's only recording on Soviet television was filming for Kinopanorama. This myth is partly true if we talk about filming only on central television. And the first to photograph Vysotsky were Estonians. On May 18, 1972, an hour-long program "The Man from Taganka" was recorded in Tallinn. It was shown a month later, and for 6 years it remained the actor's only meeting with viewers. On October 4, 1978, a half-hour program featuring Vysotsky was filmed in Grozny. And on September 14, 1979, the actor gave an interview to the journalist of Pyatigorsk television. But this program was shown only once, in October of the same year on the second local program. And in the summer of 1980, the recording was destroyed, miraculously survived only 7 minutes, in which Vysotsky performed his songs.
Vysotsky's last filming took place on April 16, 1980. This myth has been replicated by various media. It is believed that the last time the actor was filmed by Vladislav Vinogradov was in Leningrad. The documents say that Vysotsky's last lifetime shooting took place on July 18, 1980 at the Taganka Theater. The documentary filmmaker filmed the actor for two minutes in the role of Hamlet in the play of the same name.
The only mention of Vysotsky's death in the Soviet press was in "Evening Moscow" on July 25, 1980. On that day, the newspaper placed on its fourth page a small obituary to the death of the actor, without even placing his photographs. However, this was not the only publication. The same edition on July 28, in a small note "On the last journey," reported on the requiem and funeral at the Vagankovskoye cemetery, listing wreaths from important organizations. The next day, a small obituary was published in the newspaper of the Central Committee of the CPSU "Soviet Culture". On the fortieth day after the poet's death, Alla Demidova published an excellent article in memory of Vysotsky in Sovetskaya Rossiya. On August 1, the mourning material was published by Tallinn's Sirp I Vazar, noting the artist's talent. But even such suppression by the authorities of the fact of Vysotsky's death did not prevent the gathering of tens of thousands of those who wanted to see him on his last journey.
The poet's work fits into a two-volume edition. The decline in interest in Vysotsky's work occurred also because his collections were poorly compiled. It seems to book lovers that the entire creative heritage has already been published and is well known to everyone. The audience is offered a two-volume edition, compiled by A. Krylov. Each subsequent edition copies the previous one. The reader's interest falls, because he is offered all the same 200-300 famous poems. The situation is even worse with Vysotsky's prose. A wide audience knows only "The Novel about Girls" and "Life Without Sleep". Meanwhile, the most complete and best collection of Vysotsky's works is a five-volume edition published by Tulitsa publishing house. It included 877 completed and unfinished poems, 13 prose works, diary entries, scripts, sketches. But even this collection is not complete. There are also oral stories and speeches to the public, answers to questionnaires. The specialists have not yet received access to the poet's letters to Marina Vlady. Friends and relatives of the poet seek out and restore his forgotten works.
Vysotsky was close friends with Shukshin. The fates of two great artists are often artificially intertwined. Shukshin's biographers recall that he practically did not know Vysotsky. At some time, both of them crossed paths in Levon Kocharyan's circle on Bolshoi Karetny. But then many famous people moved there, including Tarkovsky. In his later interviews, Vysotsky recalled that he was always impressed by Shukshin's work. The same one tried the actor for the role of Pashka Kolokolnikov in "There is such a guy", and then promised to use him in the lead role in "Razin". True, the memories of warm relations with Shukshin are not confirmed by him. Perhaps Vysotsky just embellished the story a little by creating this myth. Neither in Shukshin's letters, nor in his records or publications, Vysotsky's name is never mentioned.
Vysotsky decided to become an actor on New Year's Eve 1956. There is a beautiful legend about Vysotsky's youth. On December 31, 1955, two students of the Moscow Civil Engineering Institute pored over the drawings, wanting to get the desired access to the exams. Only in the morning did the young people finish their work. And then young Vladimir, glancing at the Whatman paper rolled out on the floor, poured the contents of the coffee pot onto the paper and announced that he was leaving as an actor. But the rector received an application for expulsion from the university on December 25, so there was no New Year's Eve spent over the drawings and there was no overturned coffee pot. But the legend has already gone to the people, confirming that the people's favorite had talent, stubbornness, willpower, and character.
Vysotsky did not sing thieves' songs. Vysotsky's singing career began with songs that in one way or another played on the theme of thieves. There is even a legend that the first performance took place in front of the party bosses, and the young man decided to show his character by performing thieves' songs. Then Vysotsky did not have his own songs. The first song of the performer is "Tattoo". It also speaks of two men who loved the same woman and got a tattoo in her memory. Biographers believe that Vysotsky wrote this song in 1961. Later there were other thieves' songs. When all-Union fame came to the bard, this unwanted train began to reach for him. In the minds of the party leaders, Vysotsky remained the same hoarse performer of thieves' songs. Later, Vysotsky himself began to abandon the authorship of the frivolous songs he created at the dawn of his career. In addition, completely extraneous thug songs began to be attributed to his authorship.
"Tattoo" is the first song by Vladimir Vysotsky. This song was written in 1961 and in many sources is called the first for the author. In fact, this is the song "49 days". It is dedicated to the brave struggle for the survival of the crew of the T-36 barge carried off into the ocean. Vysotsky wrote this song in 1960. Later he himself was very skeptical about his first experience. That is why the song was practically forgotten, but its recording has survived to this day.
Vysotsky was not baptized. This myth is refuted by his son. As a child, Vladimir Semenovich was really not baptized. In those days, this ceremony was simply risky. However, Vysotsky's close friends said that he was baptized shortly before his death. True, it was not possible to confirm this fact in the church. Nevertheless, can a person be considered an atheist who writes "I have something to sing when I appear before God"? Vysotsky was not churched, but attended services. In his library they found religious literature, including the Bible. At some period of his life, the artist wore a cross, and clearly not for beauty - there were also icons in the house. Many friends of Vysotsky do not know anything about his baptism or believe that this fact was not. However, he was buried in church, albeit in absentia. On the day of the funeral, a memorial service was performed in the church at the Vagankovskoye cemetery.
Vysotsky fought at the front. During the years of Vysotsky's life, there were many people who had gone through the war. Frontline lyrics could not leave them indifferent. The fact that the performer understood the material so deeply, sincerely served it and sang in the first person, formed the basis of this myth. Memories of those who fought at the front with Vysotsky even began to appear. But this simply could not be - the artist was born only in 1938.
Vysotsky did not have a musical education. If we talk about education, as about studying at a music school or a specialized institution with a diploma, then this really was not in Vysotsky's biography. True, he had a musical education in a different sense. As a child, Vladimir was taught to play the piano, instilling an initial knowledge of music. He received something at school, then friends taught Vysotsky to play the guitar, some skills were acquired by him on his own. The Moscow Art Theater School, graduated by Vysotsky, certainly added to his musicality. I had to study in the theater, and from musicians, arrangers.As a result, at the end of his life, Vysotsky played quite professionally, his musical education was much higher than that of some graduates with diplomas. Vysotsky absorbed new knowledge like a sponge, forgetting nothing.
Vysotsky died of acute heart failure. The exact cause of the poet's death remains a mystery. The poet's parents insisted that the autopsy should not be performed. Some experts believe that Vysotsky died due to asphyxia, while others blame myocardial infarction. Marina Vlady claims that her husband died due to drugs, but the version of the overdose has not been confirmed by anyone and has not been investigated. In any case, Vysotsky's health was undermined by countless tours, alcohol, nervous breakdowns, the same drugs. This could not last long. In 1979, Vysotsky had already experienced clinical death on tour. Then it was caused by cardiac arrest, which occurred after the introduction of a potent drug. Vysotsky's personal doctor, Anatoly Fedotov, was able to save him, but a year later he was already powerless.
Vysotsky was a real fighter against the regime. Sometimes the actor appears to be a person who was unbearably stuffy within the walls of Soviet reality. In addition, the state pursued him, not allowing him to turn around. This is what is called one of the causes of Vysotsky's death. Really worth it to face it. Vysotsky was allowed a lot and was forgiven. He disrupted filming and performances, going into binges and leaving for Europe. Together with his French wife Marina Vlady Vysotsky traveled the world, having visited Hollywood and even Tahiti (twice!). The artist was driving around Moscow in a blue Mercedes, and before that he had a Renault and a BMW. An ordinary Soviet citizen could not even dream of such a thing. Paid performances in the Soviet Union were prohibited, but unofficially Vysotsky received 150 rubles per concert. And again the authorities turned a blind eye to this, as well as to the supply of drugs to the artist, including from abroad. The genius artist was allowed a lot, but he did not refuse to use all the benefits provided by the regime.